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Common faults and troubleshooting methods of drilling rigs

Jun. 21, 2024

1. Drilling rig failures are divided into five categories:

Mechanical failure, hydraulic failure, electrical failure, engine failure, mud pump failure.

Mechanical failures: mechanical defects, fixing parts deformation, transmission parts, etc.

Hydraulic failure: the failure of hydraulic pumps, cylinders, valves, pipes, etc., and all hydraulic components.

Electrical faults: Faults in generators, starters, switches, fuses, electrical circuits.

Engine failure: The failure of all parts of the diesel engine is an engine failure.

Mud pump failure: The failure of all parts of the mud pump is a mud pump failure


2. Fault analysis and elimination methods

A. Minor Failures

1. Tubing leakage: check whether the nut is loose. Whether the O-ring or combination mat is damaged. Whether the fittings are not matched. Whether the buckle fitting is not fastened.

2. Poor circuit contact: check whether the fuse, various parts of the wire are loose, whether the line is aged or broken, etc.

3. Broken tubing: check whether it is rubbed with metal. Whether the tubing rubs against each other.

4. Part of the indication pressure failure: whether the water meter tube is blocked, whether the meter wire is broken and out of order, whether the sensor is out of order, the surface quality is wrong, and the system is under no pressure.


B. Well drilling rigs General Failures

1. Burst pipe: fault analysis and elimination method - check the material. Whether the pressure is too high. Whether the joint is pressed well. Whether the bureau is badly worn. Whether the tubing and other components are extruded and deformed.

2. Track deviation: whether the main pump flow on both sides of the crawler is the same. Whether the relief valve is broken or stuck. Whether the large pump is broken or leaking. Whether the motor balance valve is out of balance. Whether the multi-way valve is leaking.

3. The center line of the fixture is centered: the power head splint is not properly adjusted, and the height can be adjusted by adding a backing plate. The deformation of the fixture assembly can be corrected.

4. The expansion and contraction of the clamp cylinder is different: the oil inlet of the cylinder is inconsistent. The tee aperture can be adjusted. Adjustable clamp balancing valve.

5. It is difficult to shackle if the clamp clamp is not tight: the clamp bar is worn. Insufficient oil pressure. The hydraulic lock is out of order. Cylinder leakage. The torque is too large. Excessive wear and insufficient stroke.

6. Push-pull failure: whether the operating valve, main pump, and multi-way valve are leaking. Whether the stressor is insufficient. Whether the safety valve, oil cylinder, and motor are leaking.

7. Rotation failure: whether the operating valve, motor, multi-way valve, and main pump are damaged or leaked.

Water Well Drilling Rig.png

8. All kinds of acceleration failures: whether the total power supply is out of power or short circuit. Whether the flame extinguisher is out of order. Whether the solenoid valve coil is broken. Whether the spool is stuck or not. Whether the accelerator switch or accelerator pump is damaged.

9. The mud pump does not work: whether the circuit, oil circuit, and mud motor are unclear or neutral. Whether the control valve is not working. Whether the line is leaking.

10. Flame extinguisher burns out: circuit break, improper adjustment or water ingress.

11. Leakage of rotating water seal: the water seal is bad (shaft and bearing are bad). The V-ring is reversed or severely worn.

12. Failure of the walking system: whether the switch of the walking system is out of order. Oil circuit problems. Whether the solenoid valve is stuck. Electrical problems. The system is not stressed enough.

13. All kinds of temperature are abnormal: the sensor or table is not the right model. Whether the engine thermostat is out of order. Whether the belt is too loose. Whether the pump tank is blocked. Whether the oil temperature is too high. Whether the load is too large. The working hours are too long, the temperature is too high, etc.

14. All kinds of pressure cannot meet the factory standard: whether the oil circuit of various pumps, valves, cylinders and other oil circuits is leaking. Whether the relief valve core is blocked. The adjustment is unreasonable.

15. Failure of each switch in the circuit: insufficient battery power, circuit problem (main switch, fuse)

16. Difficulty in starting the diesel engine: whether the voltage is low, whether the starter is damaged, whether the diesel engine is on the wrong time, whether the oil supply system is abnormal (there is air or filter blockage), whether the intake and exhaust system is blocked, and whether the temperature is too low.

17. Oil leakage from the inlet and return pipes of the diesel engine: whether the joints are not connected properly. Whether the pipe is not leaking well. Whether the joint is desoldered.

18. Failure of each joystick: whether the hydraulic oil pressure is insufficient. Whether the operating valve is broken or worn, and there is a serious internal leakage.

19. Power head speed failure: whether the reversing valve is damaged. Whether the flame extinguisher is out of order. Whether the solenoid valve is out of order.

20. The mud pump does not draw water: circuit or switch. Mud pump failure, whether the bearing is broken or stuck. Whether it is a problem with the oil circuit. Whether the water pollution is stuck in the valve. Whether the suction pipe is leaking. Whether the slurry pump is in neutral or not. Whether the mud motor is not working. Whether the steel sleeve and piston are seriously worn and leaking.

21. The generator is not charging: whether the regulator and the engine are damaged. A broken fuse or a problem with the circuit.

22. Oil leakage in the inner ring: whether the inner ring is damaged. Whether the spindle is worn. Whether the bearing is broken or not.

23. Hydraulic oil inlet air: whether the inlet pipe is broken. Whether the oil inlet seal is not tight. Whether the pump is broken or not. Whether the filter element is seriously blocked and strongly suction air. Whether the internal and external suction lines are leaking.

24. Oil leakage and water leakage of mud pump: oil seal, whether the water seal is broken. Whether there is mud leakage.

25. Failure of each lift: the relief valve is broken or stuck. Broken pumps, valves, or leaks. Cylinder leakage, etc.


C. Critical Failures

1. The main oil tank bursts: the hydraulic system is faulty and the oil return is not smooth. Fuel tank quality problems, etc.

2. Deformation of chassis and frame.

3. The gripper is deformed and cracked.

4. The main oil pump, oil cylinder, motor, etc. are damaged.

5. The main valve block is damaged.

6. Engine failure. If there is a failure in the operation of the diesel engine, the cause should be carefully analyzed in order to make a correct judgment and prepare for the elimination of the fault and the prevention of the accident. Usually adopted; See, hear, touch, smell, and inspect the fault analysis and judgment.

"Look": Visually observe the appearance of the diesel engine, the indication of the instrument and the exhaust smoke color.


"Listening": Distinguish between normal burst sounds and abnormal mechanical friction or impact of diesel engines through hearing.


"Touch": use the method of hand feeling to judge and determine the severity of the fault and the specific part.


"Smell": Identify and identify abnormalities in certain parts of the diesel engine through the sense of smell. "Inspection: disassemble and inspect the parts that may fail, pay attention to the damage of relevant parts, make a comprehensive analysis and judge the real cause of the failure, and then "prescribe the right medicine" for the cause of the failure, eliminate and formulate preventive measures.


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